Containers can be any size that fit the space you have available. These days they are generally made from plastic which is fine up to a point but I would never use a plastic container that is not ‘food grade’. There are lots of pots and buckets, used for transporting food going for free or sold for very little. They have usually contained catering sized deliveries of things like mayonnaise.
Supermarkets also throw out huge numbers of polystyrene fish boxes. The fish are packed in ice to keep them fresh and then transferred to refrigerated displays in the store. The boxes are used once then dumped! I have used fish boxes to grow lettuce and other crops. All that was needed were holes in the bottom for drainage and some peat free compost.
You can grow almost anything in a container. Some crops like carrots need more space for their roots but by choosing varieties that are either round or ‘stumpy’ or finding a using something like florists bucket, it is possible to get a good crop.
Other things like Blueberries need an acidic soil so, unless your soil is very acidic they are better grown in large pots. They are often sold a ‘patio plants’ and can look decorative as well as providing edible fruits.
With a little ingenuity it is possible to grow food in the most unlikely places like balconies of high rise flats or even on flat roofs.
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